ssh-add -- adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent


ssh-add [-cDdLlXx] [-t life] [file ...]
ssh-add -s pkcs11
ssh-add -e pkcs11


ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent, ssh-agent(1). When run without arguments, it adds the files
~/.ssh/id_rsa, ~/.ssh/id_dsa and ~/.ssh/identity. After loading a private key, ssh-add will try to load corresponding certificate information from the filename obtained by appending to the name of the private key file. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.

If any file requires a passphrase, ssh-add asks for the passphrase from the user. The passphrase is read from the user's tty. ssh-add retries the last passphrase if multiple identity files are given.

The authentication agent must be running and the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable must contain the name of its socket for ssh-add to work.

Any keys recorded in the blacklist of known-compromised keys (see
ssh-vulnkey(1)) will be refused.

The options are as follows:

-c Indicates that added identities should be subject to confirmation
before being used for authentication. Confirmation is performed by the SSH_ASKPASS program mentioned below. Successful confirmation is signaled by a zero exit status from the SSH_ASKPASS program, rather than text entered into the requester.
-D Deletes all identities from the agent.
-d Instead of adding identities, removes identities from the agent.
If ssh-add has been run without arguments, the keys for the default identities will be removed. Otherwise, the argument list will be interpreted as a list of paths to public key files and
matching keys will be removed from the agent. If no public key
is found at a given path, ssh-add will append .pub and retry.
-e pkcs11
Remove keys provided by the PKCS#11 shared library pkcs11.
-L Lists public key parameters of all identities currently repre
sented by the agent.
-l Lists fingerprints of all identities currently represented by the
-s pkcs11
Add keys provided by the PKCS#11 shared library pkcs11.
-t life
Set a maximum lifetime when adding identities to an agent. The
lifetime may be specified in seconds or in a time format specified in sshd_config(5).
-X Unlock the agent.
-x Lock the agent with a password.


If ssh-add needs a passphrase, it will read the passphrase from the current terminal if it was run from a terminal. If ssh-add does not have a terminal associated with it but DISPLAY and
SSH_ASKPASS are set, it will execute the program specified by
SSH_ASKPASS and open an X11 window to read the passphrase. This is particularly useful when calling ssh-add from a .xsession or related script. (Note that on some machines it may be necessary to redirect the input from /dev/null to make this work.)
Identifies the path of a UNIX-domain socket used to communicate
with the agent.


Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication identity of
the user.
Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication identity of
the user.
Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication identity of
the user.
Identity files should not be readable by anyone but the user. Note that ssh-add ignores identity files if they are accessible by others.


Exit status is 0 on success, 1 if the specified command fails, and 2 if
ssh-add is unable to contact the authentication agent.


ssh(1), ssh-agent(1), ssh-keygen(1), ssh-vulnkey(1), sshd(8)


OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by
Tatu Ylonen. Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features and created OpenSSH. Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol
versions 1.5 and 2.0.
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