gfdl - GNU Free Documentation License


GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (c) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Founda
tion, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute ver
batim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, text
book, or other functional and useful document free in the sense
of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and
redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercial
ly or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for
the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work,
while not being considered responsible for modifications made by
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that
derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the
same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which
is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for
manuals for free software, because free software needs free docu
mentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the
same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not
limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work,
regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works
whose purpose is instruction or reference.

This License applies to any manual or other work, in
any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder
saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.
Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimit
ed in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated
herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or
work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed
as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or dis
tribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work
containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verba
tim, or with modifications and/or translated into another lan
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front
matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
(Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a
Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The rela
tionship could be a matter of historical connection with the sub
ject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosoph
ical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sec
tions whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant
Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released
under this License. If a section does not fit the above defini
tion of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as In
variant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If
the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there
are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text
that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the
notice that says that the Document is released under this Li
cense. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back
Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine
readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is
available to the general public, that is suitable for revising
the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for
images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for draw
ings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable
for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a
variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy
made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or ab
sence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subse
quent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image for
mat is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of
text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies
include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX
input format, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} using a publicly
available @acronym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple
@acronym{HTML}, PostScript or @acronym{PDF} designed for human
modification. Examples of transparent image formats include
@acronym{PNG}, @acronym{XCF} and @acronym{JPG}. Opaque formats
include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
proprietary word processors, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} for
which the @acronym{DTD} and/or processing tools are not generally
available, and the machine-generated @acronym{HTML}, PostScript
or @acronym{PDF} produced by some word processors for output pur
poses only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title
page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold,
legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the ti
tle page. For works in formats which do not have any title page
as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent ap
pearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body
of the text.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the
Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in
parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another lan
guage. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned
below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements",
or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when
you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled
XYZ" according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to
the notice which states that this License applies to the Docu
ment. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included
by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming
warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this Li

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medi
um, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this
License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying
this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all
copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those
of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct
or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make
or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange
for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies
you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions
stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that
commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more
than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts,
you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and
legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front
cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must
also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these
copies. The front cover must present the full title with all
words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add
other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes
limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the
Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim
copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too volumi
nous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as
many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the
rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Doc
ument numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine
readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state
in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
which the general network-using public has access to download us
ing public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy
of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter
option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated loca
tion until at least one year after the last time you distribute
an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact
the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large
number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an
updated version of the Document.

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the
Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided
that you release the Modified Version under precisely this Li
cense, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Docu
ment, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modi
fied Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you
must do these things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any)
a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in
the History section of the Document). You may use the same title
as a previous version if the original publisher of that version
gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more
persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifica
tions in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors,
if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this re
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher
of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Docu
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modi
fications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices,
a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of
Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Docu
ment's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve
its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title,
year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given
on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in
the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an
item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in
the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Docu
ment, and likewise the network locations given in the Document
for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in
the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a
work that was published at least four years before the Document
itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or
"Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in
the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Docu
ment, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section num
bers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section ti
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such
a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
"Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Sec
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sec
tions or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and con
tain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option
designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do
this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the
Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct
from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provid
ed it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version
by various parties---for example, statements of peer review or
that the text has been approved by an organization as the author
itative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front
Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text,
to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.
Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text
may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.
If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not
by this License give permission to use their names for publicity
for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

You may combine the Document with other documents re
leased under this License, under the terms defined in section 4
above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original
documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of
your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve
all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this
License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be re
placed with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sec
tions with the same name but different contents, make the title
of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in paren
theses, the name of the original author or publisher of that sec
tion if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the
license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections En
titled "History" in the various original documents, forming one
section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Enti
tled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".
You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

You may make a collection consisting of the Document
and other documents released under this License, and replace the
individual copies of this License in the various documents with a
single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you
follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of
the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collec
tion, and distribute it individually under this License, provided
you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document,
and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim
copying of that document.

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with
other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a
volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggre
gate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used
to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what
the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an
aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the
aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Docu
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applica
ble to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less
than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts
may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the ag
gregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document
is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed
covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so
you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms
of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations re
quires special permission from their copyright holders, but you
may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in ad
dition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You
may include a translation of this License, and all the license
notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided
that you also include the original English version of this Li
cense and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers.
In case of a disagreement between the translation and the origi
nal version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the origi
nal version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledge
ments", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4)
to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing
the actual title.

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute
the Document except as expressly provided for under this License.
Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the
Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights
under this License. However, parties who have received copies,
or rights, from you under this License will not have their li
censes terminated so long as such parties remain in full compli

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised
versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.
Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present ver
sion, but may differ in detail to address new problems or con
cerns. See <>.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing
version number. If the Document specifies that a particular num
bered version of this License "or any later version" applies to
it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions ei
ther of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Document does not specify a version number of this Li
cense, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft)
by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, in
clude a copy of the License in the document and put the following
copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (C) <year> <your name>.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Soft
ware Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover
Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and
Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being <list their
titles>, with
the Front-Cover Texts being <list>, and with
the Back-Cover Texts
being <list>.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or
some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives
to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program
code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under
your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General
Public License, to permit their use in free software.


gpl(7), fsf-funding(7).


Copyright (c) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation,
Inc. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301,
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim
copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
gcc-4.1.1 2006-05-24
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