sconfig - channel configuration utility for Cronyx adapters


sconfig    [-aimsxeftuc]    [device]     [data_rate_options]
[protocol_options ...]
        [interface_options ...]


The sconfig utility is used for configuring the channel op
tions of the
Cronyx adapters. In asynchronous mode, all parameters
should be set
using the standard stty(1) utility. With sconfig, it is on
ly possible to
set some of them (see below).
Some of the options can be set only on free channels, that
is when the
corresponding network interface is in the down state in the
mode, and the terminal device /dev/tty* is closed in asyn
chronous mode.
Other channel options can be changed ``on the fly''. Gener
ally, the
channel options are set up during the operating system
startup, for example, from the /etc/rc script.
Note that not all options make sense in every particular
case, and an
attempt to set some of them may hung up the channel or the
whole adapter.
Information Options
Only one of these options can be specified. If information
option is
specified, sconfig will show the corresponding information
and will
ignore all other options, except device. See also the de
scription of the
device argument.
<none> This will show settings of the channel.
-a Print all settings of the channel.
-i Print interface settings, equal to the output of the
-m Print modem signal status. The description of all
signals can be
found in any modem documentation. Only LE signal
should be
described. If this signal is ON then the channel is
busy. If it
is OFF then the channel is free.
-s Print brief channel statistics. This is the generic
see also the -x, -e, -f, -t, and -u options. For a
of the output, see below.
This statistics is very useful if something goes
wrong. For
example, if all interrupt counters are zero then the
device was
configured to use an interrupt that was not regis
tered in the
BIOS for use with the ISA bus.
-x Print full channel statistics. This options prints
counters, but with less precision than with the -s
-e Print brief E1/G703 statistics. If this option is
selected, the
statistics accumulated over the last 15 minutes is
printed. For
a description of the output, see below.
-f Print full E1/G703 statistics. This option shows
all E1/G703
statistics that the -e option shows, plus total
statistics for
the whole period of time and statistics for last 24
hours (if
available). For a description of the output, see
-t Print brief E3/T3/STS-1 statistics. If this option
is selected,
the statistics accumulated over the last 15 minutes
is printed.
For a description of the output, see below.
-u Print full E3/T3/STS-1 statistics. This option
shows all
E3/T3/STS-1 statistics that the -t option shows,
plus total
statistics for the whole period of time and statis
tics for last
24 hours (if available). For a description of the
output, see
-c Cleans all kind of statistics.
Device Selection
The device is selected using the name of the network inter
face, as shown
by ifconfig(8). The channel number depends on the order the
drivers were
loaded into the system. Sometimes people confuse channel
number and
adapter number because of the same spelling. The adapter
number appears
in the kernel context, while the channel number is in the
<none> If the device name is omitted, sconfig will print
about all channels of all Cronyx adapters available
in the system. If some settings need to be made, the device
name must be
cx## This is the channel name for the Sigma family of
Cronyx adapters.
(ISA bus.)
ct## This is the channel name for the Tau family of
Cronyx adapters.
(ISA bus.)
cp## This is the channel name for the Tau-PCI family of
adapters. (PCI bus.)
ce## This is the channel name for the Tau32-PCI family of
adapters. (PCI bus.)
Data Rate Options

value A non-zero value will set the data rate to a given
value in asyn
chronous mode, and will set the data rate and inter
nal clock
source of synchronization in synchronous mode. A
zero value is
equivalent to specifying the extclock option. The
data (TxD) are synchronized using the internal on
board timing
generator, the internally generated timing signal is
driven on
the TXCOUT pin, and the signal on the TXCIN pin is
ignored. This
mode is used for direct terminal-to-terminal commu
nication, e.g.,
when connecting two computers together in syn
chronous mode with a
relatively short cable. This method should also be
used for
testing channels with an external loopback connec
Set the external timing clock source for synchronous
External clock mode is the most commonly used method
for connecting external modem hardware. In this mode, the ex
ternal timing
signal is received on the TXCIN pin of the connec
tor, and it is
used as a synchronization clock for transmitting da
ta (TxD).
Note: in extclock mode, the device cannot determine
the value of
the external timing clock since it does not have the
clock gauge.
Protocol Options
Note: these option can only be used on a free channel, and
they require
specifying the device name.
async (Only for Sigma family.) Select the asynchronous
protocol (or
mode). In this mode, Cronyx adapters behave as nor
mal serial
devices, and standard serial communications utili
ties can be used
to work with them. All asynchronous settings should
be set using
the standard serial communications configuration
utilities, e.g.,
stty(1). With sconfig, it is only possible to set
some of them.
cisco Select the Cisco HDLC synchronous protocol.
fr Select the Frame Relay synchronous protocol (ANSI
T1.617 Annex
ppp Select the synchronous PPP protocol. PPP parameters
can be con
figured using the spppcontrol(8) utility.
Turn on/off transmission of keepalive messages.
This option is
used only for synchronous PPP. If this option is
on, PPP will
periodically send ECHO-REQUEST messages. If it will
not receive
any ECHO-REPLY messages for some (definite) period
of time it
will break the connection. It is used for tracking
the line
idle This mode is reported when using Netgraph. An actu
al protocol
depends on the type of a connected Netgraph node,
and it cannot
be changed with sconfig.
Interface Options
Not all of these options can be set on a busy channel, and
not all of
them are applicable to all kinds of adapters/channels. For
all dualstate options, off is the default value. None of these op
tions can be
used in the asynchronous mode, except for the debug option.
Set the port type for old Sigma models.
Set the configuration for the adapter. This option
can be used
only with Tau/E1 and Tau/G703 adapters, and only if
all channels
are free.
cfg=A Two independent E1/G703 chan
nels. This is
the default setting.
cfg=B (Only for ISA models.) For
Tau/G703 this
means one G703 channel and one
channel. For Tau/E1, the
first physical
channel is divided into two
One of them goes to the first
logical channel, another one goes to the
second physical channel. Second (logical)
channel is
the digital channel.
cfg=C (Only for E1 models.) In this
mode, first
physical channel consists of
three data
flows. Two of them go to the
two (logical)
channels. The last one goes
to the second
physical channel. On newer
(Tau32-PCI, Tau-PCI/2E1 and
this programs the hardware to
use a single
source of synchronization and
pass all
unused (in both channels)
timeslots from
one channel to another.
For a detailed description of available configura
tion modes, see
the adapter documentation. This option cannot be
set on a busy
Turn on/off internal loopback. This mode is useful
for debugging. When this mode is on, some data should be
sent. If no
interrupts are generated, chances are that the cor
responding IRQ
configuration entry in the BIOS was not switched
from ``PCI/ISA
PNP'' to ``Legacy ISA''.
(Only for Tau32-PCI and Tau-PCI/E3.) Turn on/off
remote loopback
feature. This mode is also useful for debugging.
Turn on/off digital phase locked loop mode (DPLL).
When enabled,
the receiver timing clock signal is derived from the
data. Must be used with the NRZI encoding to avoid
the synchronization loss.
Turn on/off NRZI encoding. If off, NRZ encoding is
NRZ The zero bit is transmitted by the zero signal
level, the
one bit is transmitted by the positive signal
NRZI The zero bit is transmitted by the change of
the signal
level, the one bit is by the constant signal
level. Commonly used with the dpll=on option.
(Tau and Tau-PCI only.) Invert both the transmit
and receive
clock signals.
(Tau-PCI only.) Invert the receive clock signals.
(Tau-PCI only.) Invert the transmit clock signals.
(E1 only.) In off state the sensitivity is -12 dB.
Turn on/off
increasing the E1 receiver's non-linear sensitivity
to -30dB.
This allows increasing of the line distance.
(Tau-PCI/T3 and Tau-PCI/STS-1 only.) Turn on/off
adjusting of
the transmit signal for a long cable T3/STS-1.
(Tau32-PCI, Tau-PCI/2E1 and Tau-PCI/4E1 only.) Turn
increasing of the E1 receiver's linear sensitivity
to -30dB.
This can be used for the interception purposes.
(Tau32-PCI and Tau-PCI E1 family only.) Turn on/off
the socalled ``phony'' mode. This mode allows receiving
raw CEPT
frames from the E1 line. Raw frames can be ac
cessed, for example, with the raw protocol. Packets would come at a
rate of 500
frames per second with length 16*N (for Tau-PCI/E1
model), where
N is the number of timeslots. For Tau-PCI/2E1 and
Tau-PCI/4E1, N
should be equal to 32 regardless of the number of
used timeslots.
(Tau32-PCI, Tau-PCI/2E1 and Tau-PCI/4E1 only.) Turn
unframed mode.
unfram=on Switch channel to the un
framed G.703
unfram=off Switch channel to the
framed E1
(G.704) mode.
(Tau32-PCI, Tau-PCI/G.703, Tau-PCI/2E1, and Tau
PCI/4E1 in
unframed mode only.) Turn on/off scrambling of the
G.703 data.
(Tau32-PCI and Tau-PCI E1 family only.) Turn on/off
the usage of
the 16th timeslot for data transmission. Normally,
the 16th
timeslot is used for signalling information (multi
framing CAS).
(E1 only.) Turn on/off CRC4 superframe mode.

int Use an internal clock generator for G703
(clock master).
rcv Use the G703 receiver data clock as the
transmit clock
(clock slave).
rcv0, rcv1, rcv2, rcv3
Use the G703 receiver clock of the other
channel (E1
models only).
(Tau32-PCI, Tau-PCI/2E1 and Tau-PCI/4E1 only.) Bind
a logical
channel to a physical channel. Using this parameter
it is possible, for example, to split physical E1 channel into
several logical channels.
(E1 only.) Set up the list of timeslots for use by
the channel.
The timeslots are numbered from 1 to 31, and are
separated by a
comma or a minus sign, giving an interval. Example:
(Tau/E1 only.) Set up the list of timeslots, trans
lated to the
E1 subchannel in cfg=B and cfg=C configurations.
Turn on/off debug messages.
0 Turn debug messages off.
1 Turn debug messages on, equivalent to the debug
option of the
ifconfig(8) utility.
2 High intensive debug messages, for developers


Set up channel 1 for use with the HDSL modem or any other
leased-line modem, and PPP/HDLC protocol (for Sigma):

sconfig cx1 ppp extclock
ifconfig cx1 up
Set up channel 0 of Tau/E1 for use with the Cisco protocol
over the E1
link, with a single virtual connection. The DLCI number is
automatically. Use timeslots 1-10:

sconfig ct0 cisco ts=1-10
ifconfig ct0 up
Set up channel 0 for the synchronous null-modem link to the
nearby computer, internal clock source, 256000 bits/sec, protocol Cis
co/HDLC (for

sconfig ct0 cisco 256000
ifconfig ct0 up
Set up channel 1 for the leased line link using the data-on
ly null-modem
cable (or modems like Zelax+ M115). Synchronous DPLL mode,
bits/sec, protocol PPP/HDLC, NRZI encoding (for Sigma):

sconfig cx1 ppp 128000 nrzi=on dpll=on
ifconfig cx1 up


This section contains a description of abbreviations used by
while displaying various statistics. For a description of
related to statistics, please see above.
When running, the driver gathers statistics about the chan
nels, which can
be accessed using the sconfig utility, or through the
ioctl(2) call
Rintr Total number of receive interrupts.
Tintr Total number of transmit interrupts.
Mintr Total number of modem interrupts.
Ibytes Total bytes received.
Ipkts Total packets received (for HDLC mode).
Ierrs Number of receive errors.
Obytes Total bytes transmitted.
Opkts Total packets transmitted (for HDLC mode).
Oerrs Number of transmit errors.
E1/G.703 Statistics
For E1 and G.703 channels, the SNMP-compatible statistics
data are gathered (see RFC 1406). It can be accessed using the sconfig
utility, or
through the ioctl(2) call SERIAL_GETESTAT.
Unav (uas) Unavailable seconds: receiving all
ones, loss of
carrier, or loss of signal.
Degr (dm) Degraded minutes: having error rate
more than
10E-6, not counting unavailable and
errored seconds.
Bpv (bpv) HDB3 bipolar violation errors.
Fsyn (fse) Frame synchronization errors (E1 on
CRC (crce) CRC4 errors (E1).
RCRC (rcrce) Remote CRC4 errors: E-bit counter
Err (es) Errored seconds: any framing errors,
or out of
frame sync, or any slip events.
Lerr (les) Line errored seconds: any BPV.
Sev (ses) Severely errored seconds: 832 or more
errors, or 2048 or more bipolar viola
Bur (bes) Bursty errored seconds: more than 1
framing error,
but not severely errored.
Oof (oofs) Severely errored framing seconds: out
of frame
Slp (css) Controlled slip seconds: any slip
buffer overflow
or underflow.
E1/G.703 Status
The sconfig utility also prints the E1/G.703 channel status.
The status
can have the following values (non-exclusive):
Ok The channel is in a valid state, synchronized.
LOS Loss of sync.
AIS Receiving unframed all ones (E1 only).
LOF Loss of framing (E1 only).
LOMF Loss of multiframing (E1 only).
FARLOF Receiving remote alarm (E1 only).
AIS16 Receiving all ones in the timeslot 16 (E1 on
FARLOMF Receiving distant multiframe alarm (E1 only).
TSTREQ Receiving test request code (G.703 only).
TSTERR Test error (G.703 only).


stty(1), ioctl(2), sppp(4), ifconfig(8), route(8), spppcon


This utility is a replacement for the cxconfig and ctconfig
that were used in the past with FreeBSD drivers. Those two
utilities and
sconfig are not compatible, and therefore all scripts using
them have to
be rewritten. Moreover, Linux and FreeBSD versions of the
sconfig utility are not fully compatible.


Cronyx Engineering <>


All software produced by Cronyx Engineering is thoroughly
tested. But as
created by a man, it can contain some bugs. If you have
caught one, try
to localize it and send an email with the description of the
bug, and all
operations that you have done. We will try to reproduce the
error and
fix it.
BSD May 19, 2004
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